PPT – Terrorism Funding PowerPoint Presentation – ID_1205928 u s anti money laundering laws

Introduction

Terrorist organizations obtain and transfer finances to operate in numerous ways.

This presentation touches on some of the more significant means that funds are obtained and moved to support transnational terrorism in today’s operational environment.

The topics presented here represent the core sources and methods for terror funding. In the overall world of terror the well of monies is limited only by the terrorists imagination and initiative. No one element is pre-eminent, each has its’ place in the world of terror finance.

Zakat the giving of alms for the poor and needy, as prescribed by the quran. Zakat is the primary means within the muslim world for terror organizations to “legitimately” receive money.

Islamic banking when conducted as prescribed by the quran, serves to legitimately facilitate funds collection and disbursal.

This is particularly true of zakat funds.U s anti money laundering laws

Hawala an informal funds transfer system, is the primary means of distributing smaller sums of money around the world in a safe and record free manner.

Money laundering A criminal endeavor by which millions of dollars can be transferred around the world in a single transaction or a series of transactions.

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Zakat collection and distribution

• saudi arabia collects zakat by government agency (similar to our IRS) and distributes to recognized charities. Saudi collections are estimated to exceed $10 billion. (saudi ministry of finance and national economy)

• most other countries, both muslim and non-muslim do not collect or control where zakat money goes.

• charities around the globe are rarely checked or audited by government oversight agencies to see how the monies are spent. The US is a notable exception.

• the internet has numerous islamic charity sites asking believers to pay the zakat to them promising to apply it on their behalf.U s anti money laundering laws

• the giver of zakat knows only to whom they gave their money, for what they believe will be the building of schools, mosques and to help the poor. Once given however, the giver has no further control if the funds are diverted or a portion is skimmed off for the purchase of weapons, explosives and operating terror training camps.

“if beneficiaries had used assistance for evil acts,

That is not our responsibility at all”

Prince salman, governor of riyadh, saudi arabia, nov. 2002

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Islamic banking

• many muslims send their zakat through islamic banks. This process is legal but there is no assurance they have funded a legitimate charity vice a terrorist group.

• the islamic banking system has been a mystery to most in the west. Islamic banks cannot charge interest on loans. This requires that the islamic bank make its money on its investments. Western style accounting and auditing practices to monitor and track what those investments truly involve have only recently been implemented and then only under international pressure since the attacks on the US.U s anti money laundering laws

• zakat funds deposited in islamic banks are taken off the books and “disappear” because they are not considered part of the banks assets nor its liabilities and are not reported. The bank has served only as a collection agent. The zakat can then be transferred, without regulation, to worthy charities as directed by the givers, to any worthy recipient or have some or all of it skimmed off to islamic radicals.

• some of the largest islamic banks have their headquarters in switzerland. The swiss banking philosophy and governmental regulation, adds a second layer of secrecy yet gives the banks connectivity with world banking in general.

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Conclusions

Terrorists and extremists around the world will continue to use multiple means to transfer monies to operatives. Whether the means are legal or illegal is of no concern so long as the process supports their operations.U s anti money laundering laws

These four key methods will continue to be exploited as long as government oversight is not present or is ineffective in policing the systems.

• zakat is a positive contribution to the islamic world being abused by those who see it as a means to fund terrors criminal element. Only a small percentage of funds given in compliance with zakat are intended by a knowing giver for the purpose of terror. That small percentage is enough to allow the spread of terror and end lives around the world. Just the opposite of zakats’ intended use.

• islamic banking must continue to become mainstream in their methodology and accountability in order to be recognized as trustworthy institutions. Failing that, they will remain a secretive grouping that raises suspicions as much as they attract business.

• hawala was originally benign in its historical intent but is now consistently misused by those who take advantage of its efficiencies.U s anti money laundering laws it will remain as a cultural alternative to regulated banking but certainly will continue to adapt further to accommodate the modern world. The fact that it is being made illegal in more and more countries will not end the practice in the near term.

• money laundering will continue to face pressures from authorities. Like hawala, it will remain as a working part of the criminal enterprise system. Increased regulation in the traditional business environment will make laundering more difficult but will not carry it to extinction.

• nations and organizations around the world are becoming more involved in the effort to track the in and out flows of terrors money through legislation and regulation. Regulatory efforts will serve to plug more of the financial holes that terror employs. However, as with all areas of crime, laws and regulations apply to all people and entities in a given jurisdiction but are only implemented and followed by those willing to be regulated.U s anti money laundering laws

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